1996 Mendel Medal Recipient
Maxine Singer received the Ph.D. degree in
Biochemistry in 1957 from Yale University. Her interest
in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) began during her post-doctoral
work in Leon Heppel's laboratory at the National Institutes
of Health and has never flagged. Until 1975, she was a
Research Biochemist in the Institute of Arthritis and
Metabolic Diseases, NIH. During that period she worked
on the synthesis and structure of RNA and applied this
experience to the work that elucidated the genetic code.
She described and studied enzymes that degraded RNA in
bacteria. By 1970 she became interested in animal viruses
and took a sabbatical leave in the laboratory of Ernest
Winocour (1971-1972) at the Weizmann Institute of Science,
Israel. There she began work on aspects of simian virus 40.
Moving to the National Cancer Institute in 1975,
she continued this work studying defective SV40 viruses
whose genomes contain regions of DNA from the host monkey
cells. She also carried out investigations on interaction
between histone H1 and DNA as it relates to the structure
of chromatin. In the same year she served on the organizing
committee for the Asilomar Meeting on Recombinant DNA
molecules, the first public discussion of the implication of
these new methods. The work on defective SV40 led to an
interest in highly repeated DNA sequences in primate,
including human genomes. This led in turn, to the discovery
of a transposable element (jumping gene) in human DNA, the
topic that is now the subject of her research. Looking
back, Dr. Singer's scientific interests have evolved from
an emphasis on chemistry to an increasing interest in
biological phenomena. Her current research aims to elucidate
the mechanism whereby the only known human transposable
element replicates and disperses copies to the new genomic
locations, a process which can be mutagenic.
In 1988 she became President of the Carnegie Institution
of Washington, retaining her laboratory and the title Scientist
Emeritus at the NIH. At Carnegie she has renewed her interest
in the range of sciences investigated at the Institution's
departments: earth science, astronomy, plant and developmental
biology. She has also initiated programs designed to
improve scientific understanding by the general public
including the training of elementary school teachers
and a Saturday program for children--First Light.
A member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the
National Academy of Sciences of the USA and its Institute
of Medicine, Dr. Singer served as chairman of the Editorial
Board of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the USA. Previously she served on the editorial boards
of the Journal of Biological Chemistry and Science magazines.
Dr. Singer was a fellow (trustee) of the Yale
Corporation (1975-1990), is a member of Governing Board
of the Weizmann Institute of Science and co-chairman of
its Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee, and is
also a member of the Board of Johnson & Johnson.
In 1988, Dr. Singer received the Distinguished Presidential
Rank Award, the highest honor given to a civil servant,
and in 1992 she received the National Medal of Science,
the nation's highest scientific honor bestowed by the
President of the United States "for her outstanding scientific
accomplishments and her deep concern for the societal responsibility
of the scientist."
Mendel Medal Presentation Program, January 20, 1996.
Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania.
Singer, Maxine Frank, biochemist, scientific institute executive; b.
N.Y.C., Feb. 15, 1931; d. Hyman S. and Henrietta (Perlowitz) Frank; m.
Daniel Morris Singer, June 15, 1952; children: Amy Elizabeth, Ellen Ruth,
David Byrd, Stephanie Frank. AB, Swarthmore Coll., 1952, DSc (hon.),
1978; PhD, Yale U., 1957, DSc (hon.), 1994; DSc (hon.), Wesleyan U., 1977,
U. Md.-Baltimore County, 1985, Cedar Crest Coll., 1986, CUNY, 1988,
Brandeis U., 1988, Radcliffe Coll., 1990, Williams Coll., 1990, Franklin and
Marshall Coll., 1991, George Washington U., 1991, NYU, 1992, Lehigh U.,
1992, Dartmouth Coll., 1993, Harvard U., 1994; PhD honoris causa,
Weizmann Inst. Sci., 1995. USPHS postdoctoral fellow NIH, Bethesda,
Md., 1956-58; rsch. chemist biochemistry NIH, 1958-74; head sect. on
nucleic acid enzymology Nat. Cancer Inst., 1974-79; Chief Lab. of Biochemistry,
Nat. Cancer Inst., 1979-87, rsch. Chemist. 1987-88; pres.
Carnegie Inst. Washington, 1988 -; Regents vis. lectr. U. Calif., Berkeley,
1981; bd. dirs. Johnson & Johnson; mem. sci. coun. Internat. Inst. Genetics
and Biophysics, Naples, Italy, 1982-86. Mem. editiorial bd. Jour. Biol.
Chemistry, 1968-74, Sci. mag., 1972-82; chmn. editorial bd. Procs. of NAS,
1985-88; author (with Paul Berg) 3 books on molecular biology; contbr.
articles to scholarly jours. Trustee Wesleyan U., Middletown, Conn., 1972-75,
Yale Corp., New Haven, 1975-90; bd. govs. Weizman Inst. Sci.,
Rehovot, Israel, 1978--; bd. dirs. Whitehead Inst., 1985-94; chmn.
Smithsonian Coun., 1992-93. Recipient award for achievement in biol. scis.
Washington Acad. Scis., 1969, award for rsch in biol. scis. Yale Sci. and Engring.
Assn., 1974, Superior Svc. Honor award HEW, 1975, Dirs. award NIH,
1977, Disting. Svc. medal HHS, 1983, Presdl. Disting. Exec. Rank award, 1987, U.S. Disting. Exec. Rank award,
1987, Mory's Cup Bd. Govs. Mory's
Assn., 1991, Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal for Honor Yale Grad. Sch. Assn., 1991,
Nat. Medal Sci. NSF, 1992, Pub. Svc. award NIH Alumni Assn.,
1995, Vannevar Bush award Nat. Sci. Bd., 1999, Washington D.C. Hall of
Fame, 2000. Fellow Am. Acad. Arts and Scis.; mem. NAS (coun. 1982-85,
com. sci., engring and pub. policy 1989-91, chmn. 1999--), AAAS (Sci. Freedom and Responsibility award 1982),
Am. Soc. Biol. Chemists, Am.
Soc. Microbiologists, Am. Chem. Soc., Am. Philos. Soc., Inst. Medicine of
NAS, Pontifical Acad. of Scis, Human Genome Orgn., N.Y. Acad. Scis.,
Biolabs (Nat. Adv. Bd., 2000), Perlegen Scis. (Bd. dirs., 2001). Home: 5410
39th St. NW Washington DC 20015-2902 Office: Carnegie Inst. Washington
1530 P St. NW Washington DC 20005-1933
Who's Who in America, 2002,
New Providence, New Jersey.
Marquis Who's Who, 2001, p. 4899.